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Schaus Swallowtail (Papilio aristodemus)

The Schaus Swallowtail butterfly, a distinctive and medium-sized species, graces the southern parts of Florida and nearby regions with its presence. Despite its beauty, this butterfly is facing challenges, with its numbers dwindling at an alarming rate. Classified under the At-risk – G3 group by NatureServe, the Schaus Swallowtail is a subject of conservation efforts due to its limited distribution and declining population.

Schaus Swallowtail

Scientific Classification

  • Family: Papilionidae
  • Genus: Papilio
  • Common names: Schaus' Swallowtail
  • Scientific Name: Papilio aristodemus


Belonging to a unique habitat and having a specific diet, the Schaus Swallowtail exhibits fascinating life stages from caterpillar to adult, each with distinctive characteristics that contribute to its survival and reproduction. However, confusion with the larger giant swallowtail, its territorial behaviors, and specialized habitat needs make the Schaus Swallowtail’s existence precarious in the changing environmental landscape.

Description and Identification


The Schaus Swallowtail caterpillar showcases an intriguing color palette of dark to chocolate brown with lateral marks in yellow and cream. Notably, it features a continuous white patch at the posterior end, complemented by longitudinal rows of blue spots. This mimicry, resembling bird or lizard droppings, serves as an effective camouflage against predators.


Transitioning into pupae, these creatures adopt a brown hue with bark-like patterns, blending seamlessly into their surroundings. They remain suspended from twigs or branches via a silken pad, a stage critical for their metamorphosis into adults.

Adult Butterfly

Sexual Dimorphism: Present but subtle, with males sporting yellow-tipped antennae and being marginally smaller than their female counterparts.

Color and Appearance: Both sexes share a similar color scheme; their wings, when spread, reveal a brown base adorned with yellow submarginal spots and a striking yellow median band. The tails of the secondary wings are edged in yellow, adding to their allure. The underside of the wings presents a yellow base with brown and rust-colored bands, enriched with blue accents.

Average Wingspan: Ranges from 3¼ to 3¾ inches (82 to 95 mm), a testament to their medium size.

Flight Pattern: Their flight is characterized as medium-paced, with a graceful and deliberate motion that captivates observers.


The eggs of the Schaus Swallowtail are a marvel in themselves, with a spectrum of colors from light to dark green and a spherical shape. They are meticulously laid on both the upper and underside of leaves, ensuring the next generation’s survival.

Quick Facts

DistributionPredominantly found in southern Florida, with subspecies in Hispaniola, Cuba, and the Bahamas.
HabitatThrives in hardwood hammocks where sunlight is filtered, creating a dappling effect rather than direct exposure.
Lifespan of AdultsApproximately 1 month.
Host PlantsPrefers plants from the citrus family (Rutaceae), including Citrus species, hop tree (Ptelea trifoliata), Zanthoxylum spp., and torchwood (Amyris elemifera).
Adult DietNectar from flowers such as guava, wild coffee, and cheese-shrub.

How to Identify Schaus Swallowtail?

Identifying the Schaus Swallowtail butterfly involves observing several key characteristics. Look for medium-sized butterflies with distinct brown and yellow coloring on their wings. The presence of a yellow median band and submarginal spots on the dorsal side of their wings is a hallmark of this species. Additionally, their flight pattern, medium in speed and deliberate, along with their unique egg-laying habits—spherical, green eggs placed singularly on leaf surfaces—help differentiate them from similar species. Paying attention to these details, along with the sexual dimorphism and habitat preferences, can aid enthusiasts and researchers alike in correctly identifying the Schaus Swallowtail in the wild.

Did You Know?

  • The Schaus Swallowtail is named in honor of William Schaus, an American entomologist, reflecting its unique place in the scientific community.
  • Males of this species are highly territorial, engaging in aerial displays to ward off competitors and attract mates, often at heights up to 10 feet.
  • This butterfly’s specialized camouflage techniques, from its caterpillar stage mimicking bird droppings to the pupae resembling tree bark, underscore its fascinating adaptations for survival.


The Schaus Swallowtail butterfly is a remarkable example of nature’s beauty and complexity. From its distinct stages of development to its unique survival strategies, this species captivates those lucky enough to observe it. However, its declining population and restricted habitat underscore the urgent need for conservation efforts. By understanding and appreciating the Schaus Swallowtail, we can take steps toward ensuring its survival for future generations to marvel at and study.

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Scientific Classification

  • Family: Papilionidae
  • Genus: Papilio
  • Common names: Schaus' Swallowtail
  • Scientific Name: Papilio aristodemus
Published by Avatar on September 23, 2018.
Last Updated: June 4, 2024. ✅ Verified by: Butterfly Team