Home / Brush-Footed (Nymphalidae) / Gulf Fritillary (Agraulis vanillae)

Gulf Fritillary (Agraulis vanillae)


Gulf Fritillary

The Gulf Fritillary is a bright orange, medium-sized butterfly with elongated forewings. They are found during the summer months, especially in the open areas. The males of the species are smaller than their female counterparts.

Scientific Classification

  • Family: Nymphalidae
  • Genus: Agraulis
  • Scientific Name: Agraulis vanillae

Description and Identification


Gulf Fritillary Caterpillar
Gulf Fritillary Larvae

The mature larvae have a bright orange tone with innumerable black branched spines all over their glossy body, but they do not sting. The average duration of this stage is between 11 and 16 days, depending on the temperature of their environment. As a defensive mechanism, the larva is poisonous. Their toxic flesh provides them with excellent protection against predators.


Gulf Fritillary Chrysalis
Gulf Fritillary Cocoon

The chrysalis is light to mottled brown with faint gray marking all over the body. Their coloration is an adaptation that helps them to camouflage easily amongst the branches of trees. This cocoon stage usually lasts for 7 to 12 days.

Adult Butterfly

Sexual Dimorphism: Somewhat different

Color and Appearance: When the wings are open, the dorsal side of the wings show a bright orange coloration with black rounded and elongated markings towards the edges. The females of the species are somewhat browner or darker with more extensive markings. The cells of the primary wings display three white spots rimmed with black. When the wings are closed, the ventral side of the wings exhibits a brownish coloration with elongated silvery-white spots.

Agraulis Vanillae
Gulf Fritillary Butterfly

Average wingspan: 65 to 95 mm

Flight pattern: Medium to fast pace


Gulf Fritillary Butterfly Eggs
Gulf Fritillary Eggs

Small, spherical and yellow, laid individually on or near the host plant leaves

Quick Facts

Distribution Southern regions of the US, especially Florida and Texas, and also ranges southward through Mexico; they have two migrations during the spring and the fall, respectively
Habitat Open lands including moderately sunny areas close to open grasslands, parks, as well as woodlands
Lifespan of adults 14 to 27 days
Host plants Various passion vine and passion flower species
Adult diet Flower nectar especially of zinnia, aster, thistle, verbena, lantana, butterfly bush, etc.

Did You Know?

  • This butterfly species has a defense mechanism in response to predator sightings during when they release odorous chemicals to ward off their enemies.
Gulf Fritillary Host Plants
Gulf Fritillary Life Cycle
Gulf Fritillary Range

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Scientific Classification

  • Family: Nymphalidae
  • Genus: Agraulis
  • Scientific Name: Agraulis vanillae
Published by Poppy Glendening on May 13, 2019.
Last Updated: October 15, 2023. ✅ Verified by: Butterfly Team